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The demand for reactive power can be expressed in terms of power factor and apparent power. The reactive power is the component of the apparent power that is not associated with the real power. Reactive power is required to maintain the power factor of a load at unity. Apparent power is a measure of the power delivered to a load in a circuit. It is the sum of the real and reactive power. The apparent power in reactive circuit is defined as the product of the voltage and the current. The reactive power is the difference between the apparent power and the real power. Power factor is defined as the ratio of apparent power to the total power. The reactive power may also be expressed in terms of volt-seconds, volt-amps, or amperes-seconds.
The usual power factor correction (PFC) methods used with the loads in power systems include: 1) capacitor banks, 2) the storage or capacitor bank of a synchronous generator coupled to a load, 3) capacitors for arc-recovery, 4) reactive power compensators, and 5) shunt inductors. The capacitor bank is basically a capacitor, which can be connected to a grid, or load and is designed to reduce the reactive power drawn from the grid. A capacitor bank is composed of many series-connected capacitors. The series capacitors are connected together, like the teeth of a comb. Such a capacitor bank can be connected either in parallel or in series to compensate for reactive power. If the capacitor bank is connected in parallel to the load, then the reactive power can be reduced by the amount of the parallel-connected capacitors. This can be achieved by connecting the parallel capacitor bank with the load. On the other hand, if the capacitor bank is connected in series with the load, then the reactive power can be reduced by the amount of the series capacitors. This can be achieved by disconnecting the series capacitor bank from the load. Reactive power compensators are designed to convert reactive power into real power. The reactive power compensator uses the reactive power of a generator or a capacitor bank connected to a load to supply or consume the reactive power. Shunt inductors are used to reduce the reactive power of a generator or load connected to the grid. The typical shunt inductors are connected in parallel to the load or generator to reduce the reactive power [11 & 12].
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